Unit 3: Cell and Cell Processes

Lesson 1 Cell Theory

1. How did technology over time assist in the discovery and understanding of cells?

Technology over time assisted us in the discovery and understanding of cells. Due to the technology, the microscope lets us see cells and lets us be able to study them. Also being able to study them helps doctors and scientists to make vaccines and cures. Technology has also led up to the “Cell Theory” and showed that all living things are made of cells, that cells come from preexisting cells, and that cells are the basic unit of life.

Below is a cell, the basic unit of life.

Image Source - britannica.com
The picture below is a microscope. It is used to magnify very small objects so they can be viewed by the eye like bacteria.

Image Source - adorama.com
2. What effect has the discovery of cells had on modern science?

An effect the discovery of cells had on modern science is that scientists can find more information about organisms that they couldn’t figure out before. It helped let scientists study the cells under a microscope and see the functions and jobs of cells and know more about plants and animals and how they work. This helped them to understand and figure out how things work and what that they didn’t know.

Foundations of Modern Cell Theory - Below is a timeline of the founding fathers that helped develop the cell theory.

Image Source - bio.libretexts.org
Modern Cell Theory - helped us learn more about cells.

Image Source - sciencing.com
3. What are similar functions of all cells? How do these similar functions in cells relate to functions in larger organisms (like you)?

Some similar functions of all cells are reproduction to make new cells, and they have growth, they all have a homeostasis, and they all have a defense to fight off possible parasites and pathogens. In reproduction they reproduce cells, growth cells need to grow when they are first made, homeostasis helps keep things balanced inside the cell, and defense cells have to be able to not get parasites or pathogens. This relates to larger organisms like us because we humans have to have reproduction to continue the human race. Growth is related to us because we get bigger and stronger during the process of our life. Also homeostasis helps keep things balanced inside of us. Lastly, defense relates to us because we need an immune system so we don’t get sick, get viruses, or diseases.

Cell Homeostasis keep cells equal on both sides

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4. Discuss the cell theory. How was it developed? Describe the three parts and what each means.

The cell theory tells us that all living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and cells come from preexisting cells. Robert Hooke was the person who named the cells. When he was looking through his microscope he thought that the thing he was looking at looked like tiny, little cells so that's what he named them. Then Leeuwenhoek looked through a microscope and said that it looked like little animals so he called them “animalcules”. Later on Schwann and Schleiden stated that all plant and animal tissue are made of cells. Concluding that cells are the basic unit of life and all living things are made up of one or more cells. Then the question came up where do cells come from. Next Vicrchow stated all cells come from other preexisting cells. That is how the “cell theory” came to be.

Major Contributors to Cell Theory

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Lesson 2 Plant & Animal Cells

1. How do the structures (organelle) of the cell function independently?

The structure of cells function independently because they each have a job. The vacuoles are found in both animal and plant cells. The vacuole stores nutrients and water for the cell. A plant cell has a bigger vacuole than an animal cell. The cell membranes are found in both animal cells and plant cells. The function of the cell membrane is to keep homeostasis. That means it lets certain things in and out of the cell if needed. Chloroplast is found in only plant cells. It is what makes plants have photosynthesis, the photosynthesis makes food for the plant. The nucleus is found in both plant and animal cells. It is the brain of the cell and controls the activity of the cell. The cell wall is found only in plant cells. It helps the plant to grow tall and it supports it to keep its shape. The cytoskeleton is found in both plant and animal cells. Its job or function is to provide structure for the cell. Ribosomes are found in both plant and animal cells. They put proteins together in the cell. The mitochondria is in both plant and animal cells. The function of it is to turn energy into food. It is often called the “Powerhouse”. Lysosomes are found in plant and animal cells. The job of that is to break down big particles into smaller particles to be used. Also it digests old cell parts. Microtubules are found in both plant and animal cells. The function they have is to move things in the cell, it moves stuff in a conveyor belt function. Golgi vesicles are found in plant and animal cells. The job of it is to transport materials from the ER to the Golgi body. Cytoplasm is found in plant and animal cells. It is a gel like fluid that holds things in place.

Cells communicate through chemical signals.

Image Source - scitechdaily.com
2. How do the structures (organelle) of the cell function together for the cell to exist and thrive?

The structures of the (plant) cell function together for the cell to exist and thrive. First, there is a cell wall that helps the structure of the cell and it outlines the cell membrane. The second thing the cell membrane does is the it allows things to come in or out of the cell when the nucleus tells them to. The nucleus is the brain of the cell it controls the things that happen in the cell. The part that surrounds the nucleus is the nucleolus. It is very important in the production of proteins in the cell. The cell needs water and nutrients and it needs somewhere to store it so a plant cell has a big vacuole. The vacuole acts like a cabinet or bin. Another thing in the cell is ribosome. It is also important to protein; it puts proteins together. Another thing that helps with protein is the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus modifies protein. Chloroplast absorbs the sunlight to produce food for the cell. Then the mitochondria turns that food into power that powers everything in the cell. The cell also has an endoplasmic reticulum that also helps in the making of protein, but it also transports material throughout the cell. It is sometimes called the Cell Highway. Lastly, it has cytoplasm which is like a gel-like substance to hold everything in place. Together these organelles of the cell function work together for the cell to exist and thrive.

This plant cell shows the chloroplast and cell wall

Image Source - biologydictionary.net
This plant cell is shown under the microscope.

Image Source - phys.org

Lesson 3.1 Energy in Cells - Chemical Compounds

1. How do cells use chemical compounds?

Cells use chemical compounds in many ways. First, they use carbohydrates. They use it to make cell parts, so if a cell part either dies or is damaged it can be replaced. It also uses carbohydrates to make energy so that the cell can function. The cell also uses lipids. They are used to make energy so that the cell can function. Also it stores energy like how a vacuole would but instead of water and nutrients, it would store energy. It also uses proteins to make cell parts so if a cell part dies or it is damaged it can be replaced. Lastly, it uses nucleic acids to carry genetic information, DNA which makes you who you are. It also has a RNA used to make protein.

Below is a animal cell labeled with its cell parts that are used to communicate.

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Below is a picture of how protein synthesis occurs.

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2. Describe the 4 important groups of organic compounds that are found in living things.

The four groups of organic compounds that are found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The function of carbohydrates is to make cell parts and energy. Examples of carbohydrates are sugar and starches. Lipids consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The functions of lipids are to make energy and store energy. Some examples of lipids are fats, oils, and waxes. Proteins consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. The functions of proteins are to form cell parts and speed up chemical reactions. Some examples of proteins are meat, eggs, fish, beans, and nuts. Nucleic acids consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Some functions of nucleic acids are to carry genetic information and to make proteins. Some examples of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA.

The human cell needs both DNA and RNA.
Image Source - biologyonline.com
View the checkmarks for a list of functions that carbohydrates help cells make.
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3. Relate the organic compounds to you and describe their value to living things.

Organic compounds are related to me. Carbohydrates are related to me because I consume them to make energy and carbohydrates make energy. Lipids are related to me because they can be used to make energy for me and they make energy. They also store energy and so do I. I store it in my liver and muscles. Proteins are related to me because they speed up chemical reactions. I can consume proteins by eating meat, eggs, fish, beans, and nuts, and that can speed up my chemical reactions and that could affect me in positive ways. Nucleic acids are related to me because they store DNA and I have DNA in me who makes me, me. The value of carbohydrates to living this is to make energy so that things can function. The value of lipids to living things is to be able to store and make energy so that you have energy when you need it. Protein's value to living this is to speed up chemical reactions and without chemical reactions you couldn’t even digest your food to make energy. Lastly, nucleic acids value life is to make people who they are because of your DNA.

Examples Of Carbohydrates

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Examples Of Proteins

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4. How does water play a role in chemical reactions within cells?

Water plays a role in chemical reactions within cells because without them most chemical reactions wouldn’t be possible. Water is a compound. Most chemical reactions require something to get dissolved in water. Water molecules themselves take part in many chemical reactions in the cell. Water also keeps a cell's structure so if things were a blob, chemical reactions would not be possible as much. Water also helps cells keep homeostasis. So If the cell's temperature is rapidly changing it could mess with the chemical reactions.

Water is a Universal Solvent

Image Source - en.ppt-online.org
Water Chemical Equation

Image Source - nde-ed.org

Lesson 3.2 The Cell in its Environment

1. Describe the 2 processes that allow molecules to move between the environment and cells. Why are they important?

The two processes that allow molecules to move between the environment and cells are active transport and passive transport. Active transport is important because it is the reason why cells can go from a low concentration to a high concentration using cellular energy. Passive transport is important because it is the reason why cells can go from a high concentration to a low concentration.

Active Transport usees ATP

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Passive Transport does NOT use ATP

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2. What role does water play in the movement of molecules as it relates to cells? Why is this important?

The role water plays in the movement of molecules as it relates to cellsis that it is the universal solvent and helps with the transport of substances. This is important because without water making what the cell needs the cell would not be able to function or live. It is also important because it helps with the movement of substances in the cell. Without the movement of substances in the cell, it would not get what it needed, the cell could not maintain homeostasis, and the cell would die.

Lesson 3.3 Photosynthesis & Respiration

1. Describe the events that take place during the stages of the cell cycle.

The sun supplies things with energy to living things through plants by a process calledphotosynthesis. First the sun shines down on the Earth and the plants absorb the sunlight using the process of respiration. It turns the broken down molecules into energy and food for the plant. Plants are autotrophs which means they make their own food. Animals are heterotrophs which means they don’t create their own energy, so they can’t just absorb the sunlight so they have to eat a plant which gives the animal energy from the sun. But, if an animal only eats meat it would have to eat the animal that ate that plant that got its energy from the sun. Lastly, to get the sun’s energy to humans the human would have to eat plants or eat an animal that ate a plant to get the sun’s energy.

Animal Getting Energy From The Sun

Image Source - saylordotorg.github
2. What happens during the process of photosynthesis?

During the process of photosynthesis a plant traps the sunlight in the chloroplasts and using some raw materials it creates other materials. The raw materials the plant uses are carbon dioxide and water. The sun then allows the plant to have energy to make the products. The products are sugar/glucose and oxygen. The plants use those materials to have growth and have a strong structure. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts which helps in photosynthesis.

3. What events happen during respiration?

Events that happen during respiration occur in the human body. First, you eat food. Then, the food is broken down into smaller molecules. Next, the molecules go through the digestive system and into the bloodstream. Lastly, the molecules travel to the cells in your body and release the energy. The chemical equation for respiration is sugar/glucose + oxygen ----> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy which is also the opposite of photosynthesis equation.

4. Describe the process of fermentation.

The process of fermentation is making energy inside your body. The process of fermentation does not use oxygen to make energy. It breaks down glucose releasing energy. The energy from fermentation is much lower than the energy you get from respiration. Without fermentation, not a lot of deep sea or swamp plants could live.

Lesson 4. Cell Cycle / Cell Division

1. Describe the events that take place during the stages of the cell cycle?

The first stage is interphase where the cell grows and copies the DNA and prepares it for division. Mitosis is the second stage and it is split into events. The events are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. The first event is prophase. During prophase, the chromatin condenses into pairs of centrioles and move to opposite sides of the nucleus, then the spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell and the nuclear envelope breaks down. The second event is metaphase. During metaphase, the chromosomes line up across the center and then the chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers. The third event is anaphase. During anaphase, the centromeres split the chromatids then separate the ends of the cell and move apart as the cell elongates. The fourth event is telophase where the chromosomes stretch out and a new nuclear membrane forms around the new chromosome areas. The third stage is calledcytokinesis. Cytokinesis is when the cell splits in two and then both daughter cells have an identical set of chromosomes to the parent cell.

2. Explain DNA’s role in cell division.

DNA’s role in cell division is to make sure that the cell has the genetic information it needs to carry out its activities. During the process of interphase the DNA is copied and is prepared for division. That means it is giving it the information it needs for a cell to live and carry out its activities so it doesn't die. If the cell would not get the information it needs when the cell is dividing it could not live.

Lesson 5. Cancer

1. How is cancer related to the cell cycle?

Cancer is related to the cell cycle because it kind of follows the cell cycle. Instead of growing normally, the cell grows too big and divides too often. First, one cell is developed in an abnormal way and as the cell divides over and over again it produces more abnormal cells. Then all these abnormal cells form a tumor. A tumor is a mass of abnormal cells that forms cancerous cells that divide and grow uncontrollably. Lastly, the cancer spreads throughout the body unless it is removed or destroyed.

Cancer Cells vs. Normal Cells
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Image Source - verywellhealth.com
2. What are some cancer treatments and how do they impact the cancer cells?

Some cancer treatments are sugary, radiation, and drugs to destroy the cancer cells. Surgery mostly happens when cancer is detected before it spreads throughout the body. The doctors try to remove the cancerous tumor entirely. Radiation is used when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Radiation consists of beams of high energy waves. The fast growing cancer cells are more likely to be destroyed rather than normal cells by the radiation. Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat a disease. The cancer treatment drugs are carried throughout the body through blood streams. The drugs can slow the cancer's growth or kill the cancer cells.

Project by Andrew Ranck - 1/13/2021